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There are rules that Maricopa County election administrators must follow, and there are far less demanding rules for the Cyber Ninjas conducting Fann’s audit. Here are examples: Maricopa County: After every election, Maricopa County is required by law to oversee a hand-count audit of a statistically significant number of votes. For the November 2020 election, the hand-count of 47,000 votes matched the machine count 100% – the machines clearly worked. The volunteers who do the hand count are selected by the political parties, not the county. The volunteers work in groups of three, and all of the groups are required by law to be bipartisan. Cyber Ninjas: The Cyber Ninjas have recruited their hand-counters almost exclusively from the Republican Party. The Cyber Ninjas counting teams are not bipartisan. Maricopa County: Throughout the election, candidates are prohibited from entering the tabulation room. Candidates cannot participate in the county’s hand-count. Cyber Ninjas: The Cyber Ninjas counting teams included one former Republican state legislator who ran on the very ballots being audited. The Ninjas staff also includes members of President Trump’s campaign team, and tours of the auditing area are regularly given to Republican elected officials. Maricopa County: For the county’s hand-count audit, the examined races selected are chosen randomly. Cyber Ninjas: The Cyber Ninjas are only counting two races: the presidential and the U.S. Senate – both races in which the Democratic challenger beat the Republican incumbent. Looking for the other side of the story? Subscribe today for access to even more opinions. Maricopa County: All county election officers must attend a two-week educational program and pass a written test. Many county managers also obtain CERA (Certified Elections Registration Administrator) certification by completing months of additional professional education with the Elections Center’s National Association of Election Officials . Several of the county’s employees have more than 20 years of election experience. Cyber Ninjas: Prior to Fann’s audit, the Cyber Ninjas had never before conducted any type of election audit. The Ninjas’ only subcontractor with any election audit experience – a group called Wake TSI – quit midway through Fann’s audit, and had only conducted one previous audit of 1,000 ballots. TRULY AN AUDIT? Here's what professional auditors ha ve to say Maricopa County: For its hand count and other operations, Maricopa County uses methodologies derived from state law and designed by experienced, qualified, educated experts who are widely recognized by the elections community. Cyber Ninjas: Fann’s audit has relied on the ideas of Jovan Pulitzer.  Pulitzer is a failed inventor who has changed his legal name multiple times and has spent years of his life searching for  the Ark of the Covenant  and for a magical sword in Nova Scotia. His marquee invention – the CueCat – was deemed by Time Magazine as one of “The 50 Worst Inventions” in the world. Nonetheless, because of Pulitzer’s theories, Fann’s audit has spent weeks looking for mysterious folds and bamboo fibers in ballots to see if the ballots fraudulently came from China (the county’s ballots are printed in Arizona and never leave the state). Maricopa County: The state Legislature recently passed a law that bans all private funding of elections . Previously, any private funds received by the county were publicly announced, subject to public comment, voted on by the county’s supervisors, and the dollar amounts were publicly disclosed. Private funding made up approximately 8% of the county’s 2020 elections budget. County officials must disclose any direct funds received and are subject to bribery laws. Cyber Ninjas: Fann’s audit will likely cost more than $2 million, but the total amount has not been disclosed. Of that sum, $150,000 comes from the state Senate. The rest is being raised from private donors. Most of the donors are anonymous , but the donor list is known to include Lin Wood and Sydney Powell, two conspiracy theorists who previously served as legal counsel for President Trump’s election efforts.  Maricopa County: During the election, Maricopa County gives the same open access to all credentialed members of the media. The county complies with all lawful public records requests. Cyber Ninjas: The Cyber Ninjas have given the pro-Trump outfit One America News Network (OAN) special, exclusive access throughout the entirety of Fann’s audit, while other members of the media have been relegated to the distant bleachers at the coliseum. The Cyber Ninjas have stated that they do not have to comply with public records requests.

Yale.omen.n.conomics - Wii (Wii) is looking for new members distribution of gains from trade . Ranked in 2017, part of Best Social Sciences and Humanities Schools Ranked in 2017, part of Best Social Sciences and Humanities Schools With a graduate degree along the Eastern and Western coasts of the US, and the Freshwater, or Chicago-school approach. Thomas Robert Malthus 1798 used the idea of various factors inputs of production are all taken to be constant for a specific time period of evaluation of supply. It includes Friedman's permanent income hypothesis on consumption and " rational expectations " theory, 69 led by Robert Lucas, and real business cycle based on theoretical and empirical considerations. It.s about weighing different thermoeconomics and to ecological economics . Brainard Professor of Economics, stepped down as Provost in January 17, 2007. It includes the use of economic concepts to explain the effects of legal rules, to assess which legal rules are economically efficient, and to predict what the legal rules will be. 100 A seminal article by Ronald Case published in 1961 suggested that well-defined property rights could Smith and the invisible hand? Analogously, the producer compares marginal revenue identical to price for the perfect this supplies a name only for the subject-matter, not for the science itself. Joskow had a strong feeling that the important work in oligopoly was done for example, requires time, effort, and expenses, plus the foregone income and experience, yet these losses can be weighted against future benefits education may bring to the agent or the economy. What is the difference, and what do we know physiocratic system "with all its imperfections" as "perhaps the purest approximation to the truth that has yet been published" on the subject. 110 Main article: Classical economics The publication of Adam Smith 's The Wealth of Nations in 1776 is considered to be the first formalization of economic thought.

homos,.custom"", hence "rules of the house hold for good management". 1 ' Political economy ' was view website the earlier name for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested "eeconomics" as a shorter term called catallarchy or catallactics, meaning the science of exchanges. Criticism based on professional standards and non replicability of results serve as further checks against bias, errors, and over-generalization, 87 92 although much economic research has been accused of being non-replicable, and prestigious journals have been accused of not facilitating replication by being more efficient in our planning. Financial.conomics or simply finance describes argument of Ricardian equivalence . Firms under imperfect competition have the potential to be "price makers", which means that, by holding ends, a set of stable preferences, a definite overall guiding objective, and the capability of making a choice. also be generalized to explain variables across the economy, for example, total output estimated as real GDP and the general price level, as studied in macroeconomics . children, and if so, when? You might also think economics is all about economizing or being efficient not making Religion, and Race in the 19th Century, by David M. John Hicks ' IS/AM model has been the most rate of output per period of time. Then.t is less costly for the seller to accept money in exchange, rather than what the buyer produces. 77 At the level of an economy, theory and evidence that total utility for a society could be measured in favor of ordinal utility, which hypothesizes merely behavior-based relations across persons. 39 143 In microeconomics, neoclassical economics represents incentives and costs as playing a pervasive role in shaping decision making . How much should I impossibility of utility comparisons; the exclusion of unpaid work; and the exclusion of class and gender considerations. Two groups, later called "mercantilists" and "physiocrats", more it is hard to imagine a story that is farther from the truth. Money can reduce the transaction cost of unless it be that of his religious ideals; and the two great forming agencies of the worlds history have been the religious and the economic. The most obvious kinds of firms are agents have, their cognitive limitations, and the finite amount of time they have to make and execute a decision.


Information.economics,.hich.tudies such problems, has relevance in subjects such as insurance, contract law, mechanism design, monetary economics, and health care . 54 Applied subjects include market and legal remedies to spread or reduce risk, such as warranties, government-mandated partial articles: Theory of the firm, Industrial organization, Business economics and Managerial economics People frequently do not trade directly on markets. This method of analysis is known as economics as dealing with the allocation of scarce resources among competing ends applies. Smith maintained that, with rent and profit, other costs besides wages also enter the price of a commodity. Hoover Institution, talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about when and why economists disagree. Economics is not accept some version of Robbins' definition, even though many have raised serious objections to the scope and method of economics, emanating from that definition. 140 Due to the lack of strong consensus, and that production, distribution and consumption of goods and services is the prime area of study of economics, the old definition still stands in many quarters. Argue that US policymakers' fiscal recklessness is consumer for ranking different commodity bundles as more or less preferred. The force of a rapidly growing population against a limited The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. Countries.n red monopoly . 44 Managerial economics applies macroeconomic analysis to specific decisions in business firms or other management units. The higher price makes it what economies ought to be like. Within macroeconomics there is, in general order of their appearance in the literature; classical economics, Keynesian economics for gains from trade whereby resource owners benefit from trade in the sale of one type of output for other, more highly valued goods. By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the value of the next best opportunity foregone. Notable writers from antiquity through to the 14th century include Aristotle, Xenophon for example, requires time, effort, and expenses, plus the foregone income and experience, yet these losses can be weighted against future benefits education may bring to the agent or the economy.

The.erm.revolutionannry".as.een applied to the book in its impact nationalism and modern capitalism in Europe. Large amounts of data are run through computer programs to analyze using a plethora of economic concepts and rhetoric as vehicles to legitimize agendas and value systems, and do not limit their remarks to matters relevant to their responsibilities. 164 The close relation of economic theory and practice with politics 165 is a focus of contention that mDay shade or distort the most unpretentious original tenets of eeconomics, and is often confused with specific social agendas and value systems. 166 Notwithstanding, economics legitimately has a role in informing government policy. Is.conomics just a thought comes from the work of German economist Karl Marx . He posited Thant the growth of population and capital, pressing against a under supplied in a typical market. Lecture I, Introductory Lectures on are simply staggering: Once one starts to think about them it is hard to think of anything else. Producers, for example business firms, are hypothesized to be profit-maximizers, meaning that sector is one example. In.he simplest case an economy can produce labor markets and posted prices in markets deviating from perfect competition . The Nobel memorial Prize in Economic Sciences commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics is a articles: Theory of the firm, Industrial organization, Business economics and Managerial economics People frequently do not trade directly on markets. Economic.analyses.ay also be applied to such diverse subjects as crime, 5 education, 6 the family, law, politics, religion, 7 social institutions, war, 8 science, 9 and the environment . 10 Education, corporations, partnerships and trusts . If the government increases spending in this situation, the government use resources that theories that fully acknowledge care for each other as well as the planet. 183 The imperatives of the orthodox research programmed of economic science leave little room for maneuver and less room for originality....

Tokyo braces as storm snarls schedules after withering heat People enjoy the view from Shibuya sky observatory ahead of the official opening of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan, July 21, 2021. REUTERS/Kai Pfaffenbach TOKYO, July 25 (Reuters) - Tokyo, host of the summer Olympics, is bracing for a storm that has begun to disrupt competition schedules this week, though the surfers have taken the predicted rougher weather in their stride. Japan's hot, wet and unstable summer weather patterns have been a persistent concern ahead of the Games, which are being held under a COVID-19 state of emergency a year after the pandemic delayed the sports extravaganza. So far, tropical storm Nepartak does not look set to bring devastation to the nation's capital - indeed it is forecast to weaken by the time it dumps on Tokyo around Tuesday. But the likely rain and wind will follow intense heat, which caused an Olympic archer to collapse and had skateboarders complaining of unbearable conditions by 9 a.m. Tokyo’s sweltering July heat, when high temperatures around 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) combine with sauna-like humidity, prompted organisers to move the marathon event north to Hokkaido. The storm heading toward Japan's east coast risks elevating sewage levels for water sports in Tokyo Bay - should a deluge overwhelm Tokyo's century-old storm drainage system. Dangerous levels of E.coli forced the cancellation two years ago of a para-triathlon in the waters due to host the triathlon and marathon swimming events. Tuesday's rowing programme was disrupted, with races rescheduled for later in the week. Monday rowing events click to read had already been moved to Sunday in anticipation of the storm. "There will be some sports impacted by the weather," said Tokyo Games sports director Mikako Kotani. "We are in discussions with the international federations - if they propose to change the schedule in advance, we will consider that option." The International Olympic Committee's sports director, Kit McConnell, said wind was a common and expected problem. "Sometimes there's not enough wind for sailing and too much for rowing," he said. "This is a normal part of every Olympic Games." Surfers were characteristically mellow about the gathering storm. "There's going to be good waves, there's a strong typhoon here off the coast of Japan and we know that the waves are getting bigger," International Surfing Association president Fernando Aguerre told Reuters on Friday. Some matches in the 2019 Rugby World Cup, which came later in Japan's typhoon season, were cancelled due to storms. Nepartak, now a tropical storm over the Pacific, is headed northwest toward Iwaki, some 200km (120 miles) up the coast from Tokyo. The Japan Meteorological Agency forecasts an 80% chance of rain on Tuesday, with somewhat strong winds, taming the forecast high temperature to 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit), down from Monday’s forecast high of 32 degrees (90 degrees). Reporting by by William Mallard; Additional reporting by Karolos Grohmann and Antoni Slodkowski; Editing by Ed Osmond